Mehdi Nejati; Zein Al-Abedin Sadeghi; Mohammad Ali Arabpour
The increase in greenhouse gas emissions in recent years has caused great concern to many communities and environmentalists; one of these important greenhouse gases is carbon dioxide (CO2). In this study, using important economic variables and indicators and time series data series of 1970-2018, which ...
The increase in greenhouse gas emissions in recent years has caused great concern to many communities and environmentalists; one of these important greenhouse gases is carbon dioxide (CO2). In this study, using important economic variables and indicators and time series data series of 1970-2018, which were divided into 5 separate groups with a set of data, and predicted the amount of CO2 emissions in Iran. For this subject, deep learning models of machine learning subset have been used. It was a multivariate issue and a set of objectives that predicted the amount of CO2 emissions for the next 5 years (5 years after 2018) and finally compared the forecasts for 2019 and 2020 with the actual CO2 of these years to verify the forecasts. The results obtained for all 6 experimental groups show that the amount of CO2 emissions in Iran will follow an upward trend in the coming years and by 2023 the amount of CO2 emissions will reach 850 to 900 million tons, which could be an environmental and dangerous disaster. Be for humans. Therefore, it is suggested that the government use a long-term plan with emphasis on important groups, culture building in the community and the establishment of more specific laws to control the amount of CO2 emissions.
Mohammad Reza Veysi; Pourya Pirmoradi; Delaram Garshasbi
Introduction: In recent years, sustainable environmental development has become one of the most important topics in various sciences. One of the primary causes of global warming and environmental instability is the excessive production of greenhouse gases. Carbon dioxide has the greatest amount and effect ...
Introduction: In recent years, sustainable environmental development has become one of the most important topics in various sciences. One of the primary causes of global warming and environmental instability is the excessive production of greenhouse gases. Carbon dioxide has the greatest amount and effect among greenhouse gases. Urban transportation is increasingly emitting carbon dioxide. In recent decades, urban transportation has also been an indispensable part of the city and urban life with the increasing expansion of cities and population growth. In many cities, especially less developed cities, urban transportation as well as traffic have currently become a constant challenge and left many environmental effects. The increasing number of city trips has resulted in air pollution, noise pollution, and weather phenomena. The emission of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide, is one of the most important destructive effects of urban transportation, which ultimately causes global warming and climate change. Therefore, if the production of carbon dioxide is more than the city's carrying capacity, it will endanger environmental sustainability in the long term. The ecological footprint index is used as an integrated method to calculate the absorption capacity of the city based on carbon production and to evaluate environmental sustainability in many countries of the world at different levels. The ecological footprint is generally a measure of how much land is needed to absorb the carbon produced by humans. The ecological footprint shows the environmental sustainability or unsustainability of the range determined based on the volume of carbon produced. Therefore, it is necessary to calculate the ecological footprint of activities that pollute the environment. Since the city of Bojnurd has experienced a significant increase in population and sudden expansion in recent years, particularly after becoming the capital of the province and considering the multifold increase of urban trips in this city, the purpose of this research is evaluation of environmental sustainability for urban transportation patterns of Bojnurd by ecological footprint technique.Materials and Methods: The present research with the descriptive-analytical method evaluates the environmental sustainability of intra-city transportation in Bojnurd. To this end, the required data, including the number of trips, daily movements, and the average distance traveled per trip for each travel pattern by referring to documents, reports, as well as the relevant organizations, has been collected. Then, the ecological footprint of Bojnurd urban transportation is calculated.Results: Finally, by comparing the per ecological footprint capita of Bojnurd urban transportation with the world standard, it is found that out of the five modes of transportation, private cars, taxis, buses, minibuses, and motorcycles, only two models of buses and minibuses are environmentally sustainable. The private car is the most unstable model whose per ecological footprint capita is nine times larger than that of the global standard per capita. This research shows that the transportation system of Bojnurd is environmentally unstable because the volume of carbon dioxide produced by this system is much higher than the capacity of absorbing carbon dioxide by the city's lands.Discussion: Due to the increasing demand for using private cars and the trend of migration to the city, these problems will increase in the future and the process of bad ecological effects on the city of Bojnurd will accelerate, which requires urgent measures and careful planning.
Hamid Sarkheil; Mahdieh Rezazadeh Belgori; Ravanbakhsh Shirdam; Yousef Azimi
Introduction: In developing countries, Material Flow Cost Accounting (MFCA) offers numerous benefits, including the identification of hidden costs, waste reduction, improved environmental outcomes, enhanced product quality and competitiveness, and increased process and resource productivity. The zinc ...
Introduction: In developing countries, Material Flow Cost Accounting (MFCA) offers numerous benefits, including the identification of hidden costs, waste reduction, improved environmental outcomes, enhanced product quality and competitiveness, and increased process and resource productivity. The zinc mining industry and related activities, such as concentrate production and zinc smelting, require process life cycle analysis due to the extensive pollution they generate, including contamination of surface and underground water from heavy elements in the leachate. Through the use of MFCA modeling, it is possible to accurately evaluate the inputs and outputs of current processes in this field and analyze them for environmental effects.Materials and Methods: This study involved visits to industrial smelting units, expert opinions, and integration with the Sima Pro software database to prepare a life cycle model and network of the product life cycle and its environmental effects. By analyzing the life cycle of Iran's zinc smelting industry, green product productivity was used to calculate the cost-material flow in the selected sample unit, track the material flow, and present a model for the life cycle of zinc. This involved utilizing information from Iran's zinc smelting industry, data from the Sima Pro software database, and the implementation of the MFCA model on information related to zinc smelting and concentrate products. In this model, zinc smelting and zinc concentrate production processes were treated as input and greenhouse gas emissions as output.* Corresponding Author’s email: Sarkheil@khu.ac.ir Results: Based on the material balance relationship, the combination of calcine with sulfuric acid produces leach cake, silver, lead, and air pollution. The research estimates that for the production of one ton of zinc ingot, the amount of air pollution generated is 7 kg. MFCA analysis of the leaching unit of the industrial research complex indicates that the cost of 5070 kilograms of input materials is 12,350,000 Tomans, the cost of the system is 30,000,000 Tomans, and the cost of energy is 1,950,000 Tomans. The study also found that 3549 kg of product is obtained for 9,100,000 Tomans, while 1536 kg of waste is produced at the cost of 3,250,000 Tomans. This highlights the input values, the primary product, and the secondary product.Discussion: Through the provision of comprehensive life cycle models for the zinc smelting process, especially the zinc smelting concentrate process, the inputs and outputs of the production chain were evaluated. By accurately determining the flow cost of these materials, the process of zinc smelting concentrate production can be optimized to minimize losses, reduce environmental pollution, lower direct costs, and increase economic output, thereby leading to the growth and development of the industrial complex.
MOHAMMAD SHAHMOHAMMADI; Yarmohammad Bay; PARVANEH Kiani
Introduction: Air pollution is a crisis that many countries around the world are currently facing. The city of Tehran has been facing the problem of air pollution for a long time and its solution has become one of the important social demands and has found international dimensions. The phenomenon of ...
Introduction: Air pollution is a crisis that many countries around the world are currently facing. The city of Tehran has been facing the problem of air pollution for a long time and its solution has become one of the important social demands and has found international dimensions. The phenomenon of air pollution in Tehran has been affecting Tehran for many years, and in the past several years, with the arrival of the cold and winter season, the residents of the capital face a serious problem, and despite all the measures taken to prevent pollution, we still see days when schools are closed and the plan of even and odd cars also continues; but pollution is strongly standing. The results of previous studies indicate the influence of various factors including geographical factors, natural features of the city, temperature inversion and industrial pollutants in air pollution.The purpose of this study is to provide a model for individuals with air pollution in Tehran.Materials and Methods: The current research is applied in terms of the type and purpose of the research, and descriptive-analytical in terms of the data collection method. In this research, after identifying the factors affecting the air pollution of Tehran city, using the opinion of relevant experts, the researcher has used the interpretive structural modeling (ISM) technique to level and interpret the conceptual relationships of the mentioned indicators. By reviewing the research literature and taking the opinion of experts, the issue is identified in the form of six indicators (temperature inversion, geographical-climatic location, pollution of factories and refineries, low quality of vehicles and fuel consumption, low green space per capita, high population density of Tehran) Took; Then, a structured matrix questionnaire was developed to determine the interrelationships of these indicators. The data obtained from the questionnaire were analyzed using interpretive structural modeling and plotted on five levels in an interactive network.Results: The results of this research showed that both industrial factors and climatic factors can be effective on air pollution in Tehran. According to result of the modeling, "pollution of factories and refineries" index was at the highest level. Therefore, transferring factories in the city and preventing the construction of new factories in the city as a solution can help reduce air pollution in Tehran.Discussion: When a temperature inversion occurs, the air becomes stable and particles accumulate in the range of the inversion layer and increase the intensity of air pollution. Regarding the pollution of factories and refineries, most of the processes that produce air pollution in industries, after the heating process, are dedicated to the process of combining materials, and air pollutants in the form of smoke and suspended particles include the most cases. Also, the combustion process in the engine of old and low-quality cars is not done well, and this is the main reason for the production of carbon monoxide. Climate controls the pollution conditions of Tehran city through changing its elements such as temperature, precipitation, pressure and wind. Also, compared to the big cities of the world and their population, Tehran is ranked 120 to 130 in terms of size, but in terms of density per square kilometer, it is ranked between 25 and 30. This means that in this city, the population has accumulated more than the ecological capacity and urban area, which causes crises such as air pollution.
Although economic growth and development in different countries has increased economic prosperity, but also environmental pollution threatens human life. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors affecting air pollution by emphasizing the emission of carbon dioxide in among the countries ...
Although economic growth and development in different countries has increased economic prosperity, but also environmental pollution threatens human life. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors affecting air pollution by emphasizing the emission of carbon dioxide in among the countries of the ECO region from 2000 to 2018 with an emphasis on financial development. To investigate the effect of financial development on environmental pollution, the Panel Data econometric method has been used and the model coefficients have been estimated with Eviews 10 software. The dependent variable of the research is the amount of carbon dioxide emissions in terms of tons per year and the independent variable is the combined index of financial development. Two control variables including GDP and energy consumption are also included in the model. In the long run, the effect of financial development on carbon dioxide emissions in the ECO countries is positive and significant. Also, the effects of GDP and energy consumption on carbon dioxide emissions are positive and significant. The coefficient of determination of the model is equal to 98%, which indicates the high descriptive power of the model. Although increasing the level of economic activity increases welfare in different societies, but given that increasing the level of economic activity, especially industrial activity, increases the emission of carbon dioxide and biodegradation. یEnvironment in ECO member countries, economic policy makers of these countries should work together to implement the necessary policies and strategies to control and reduce emissions of carbon dioxide and other environmental pollutants.