کاربرد گیاهان در حذف آلاینده‌های نفتی

نوع مقاله : مقاله مروری

نویسندگان

گروه علوم گیاهی، دانشکده علوم زیستی، دانشگاه الزهرا (س)، تهران، ایران

10.22034/envj.2022.160906

چکیده

پیشینه و هدف: صنعت نفت یک صنعت مهم، مادر و اشتغال‌زا است که به عنوان صنعت تغذیه کننده بسیاری از صنایع محسوب می‌شود. یکی از مشکلات مهم محیط زیستی مرتبط با این صنعت این است که در طی فرایندهای مختلف استخراج، انتقال، پالایش و فراوری آن امکان ورود نفت به محیط‌زیست وجود دارد. آلودگی نفتی محیط‌زیست، تهدیدی بزرگ برای سلامت اکوسیستم و انسان ایجاد می‌کند. از این رو حذف آلاینده‌های نفتی وارد شده به محیط‌زیست و به ‌ویژه خاک برای سلامت آن، ضروری است. هدف از این مقاله، علاوه بر ارائه اطلاعات کلی در مورد گیاه‌پالایی، مرور آخرین پژوهش ها در مورد استفاده از گیاهان مختلف برای حذف آلاینده های نفتی از محیط زیست می باشد. همچنین در این پژوهش تعدادی از گونه های گیاهی دارای قابلیت حذف آلاینده های نفتی معرفی شده است.
مواد و روش­ ها: برای انجام این مطالعه، کتابخانه­های الکترونیکی الزویر، اشپرینگر و مرکز اطلاعات جهاد دانشگاهی (SID)  با استفاده از کلیدواژه ­هایPhytoremediation ، Oil Contamination، گیاه پالایی، آلودگی نفتی و آلاینده نفتی مورد کاوش قرار گرفت. منابع پس از استخراج و دسته بندی موضوعی مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند.
نتایج: با انجام کاوش در منابع اطلاعات علمی 10 مقاله مروری به عنوان هسته اصلی و در مجموع 99 منبع استخراج شد و مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. بر اساس مطالعات صورت گرفته، استفاده از گیاهان برای حذف انواع آلاینده‌ها یکی از روش­های مقرون به صرفه و سازگار با محیط‌زیست معرفی شده است. از جمله مزایای گیاه پالایی می توان به نیاز به سرمایه‌گذاری کم، امکان حذف آلاینده در محل، زیبایی‌شناسی مناسب، جلوگیری از فرسایش خاک‌، جلوگیری از انتشار مواد سمی و امکان استفاده به ویژه در مناطقی که غلظت آلاینده پایین است اشاره کرد. طبق مطالعات انجام شده، گیاهان از پنج مکانیسم مختلف شامل گیاه استخراجی، گیاه تثبیتی، گیاه تبدیلی، گیاه تبخیری و  ریزوفیلتراسیون برای حذف آلاینده ها از محیط استفاده می­ کنند. در این مطالعه تعداد 12 گیاه موثر در حذف فلزات سنگین و 30 گیاه دارای قابلیت گیاه پالایی نفت و ترکیبات سمی مرتبط با آن یعنی هیدروکربن های چندحلقه­ای آروماتیک معرفی شدند.
بحث: گیاه‌پالایی یک روش دوستدار محیط‌زیست و مبتنی بر انرژی خورشید است که از نظر اقتصادی نیز مقرون به صرفه است و امکان  تجاری‌سازی آن نیز فراهم می باشد. در حال حاضر، فناوری گیاه‌پالایی در مراحل اولیه خود است و مشکلات فنی زیادی برای توسعه آن وجود دارد که باید برطرف شود. در میان گیاهان، گیاهان علفی با سطح ریشه بالا برای حذف هیدروکربن های چندحلقه­ای آروماتیک کارآمد هستند، زیرا سیستم ریشه فیبری آن‌ها سطح بسیار خوبی را برای میکروب‌ها و ریزوفیلتراسیون فراهم می‌کند. در حال حاضر و به ویژه در کشور ما نیاز مبرمی به کشف گونه‌های گیاهی جدید با توانمندی تحمل و حذف آلاینده های محیطی به ویژه آلودگی های نفتی وجود دارد. همچنین انجام تحقیقات برای بهینه‌سازی فرآیندهای گیاه پالایی، درک فعل و انفعالات گیاهی، فعل و انفعالات میکروبی و تجهیزات مناسب برای انجام آن ضروری می باشد. علاوه بر این، استفاده از تکنیک‌های مولکولی و توسعه گیاهان تراریخته برای افزایش کارامدی گیاه‌پالایی در حال گسترش است. بنابراین، انتظار می‌رود مهندسی ژنتیک نقش مهمی در افزایش کاربرد فن‌آوری‌های گیاه‌پالایی ایفا کند. مطالعات مربوط به این استراتژی‌ها در توسعه ابزارهای ساده‌تر و مقرون به صرفه برای گیاه‌پالایی بسیار مفید خواهد بود.

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