تحلیل ظرفیت برد با تأکید بر منابع آبی با استفاده از روش بار و حامل بار (مطالعه موردی: استان تهران)

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه برنامه ریزی و طراحی محیط، پژوهشکده علوم محیطی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

امروزه با رشد سریع اقتصاد و توسعه جوامع شهری، تعارض بین منابع مورد استفاده و انسان تشدید شده است لذا آگاهی از ظرفیت منابع موجود در راستای تحقق اهداف برنامه­ ریزی و توسعه یک ضرورت غیرقابل­ انکاراست. در این پژوهش سعی شده است از یک سو ظرفیت برد منابع آبی استان و فشاری که به آن وارد می ­گردد و از سوی دیگر روند افزایشی آلاینده ها در کاهش این ظرفیت مورد توجه قرار گیرد. معیارهای مورد نظر  در این پژوهش به دو گروه حامل و بار تقسیم ­بندی شده­اند. حامل ­ها از سه بعد تأسیسات آب، تأمین آب و محیط زیست و بار ناشی از فعالیت انسان در چهار بخش آب مصرفی و فاضلاب تولیدی، اقتصادی-اجتماعی و آلودگی شامل پسماند و هوا مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. جهت وزن­دهی به شاخص ­ها از روش آنتروپی شانون استفاده شده است. در نهایت  با استفاده از تعامل بارها نسبت به حامل­ ها، ظرفیت برد منابع آبی استان تهران برآورد شده است. یافته ­های تحقیق نشان می دهد در حامل تأمین آب که به عنوان عامل کلیدی در این مطالعه مورد توجه قرار گرفته است، شاخص منابع آب زیرزمینی با وزن 0.0086 بیشترین اهمیت را دارد. همچنین طبق نتایج  مربوط به تعامل بار به حامل به ترتیب حامل منابع آب با مقدار 23.748 بیشترین ظرفیت موجود، سپس حامل محیط­زیست میزان6.5663 و در نهایت حامل تأسیسات آبی به عنوان پایین ترین ظرفیت مربوط به استان تهران از بین سه حامل با مقدار 3.7092 می باشد. در نهایت مقدار عددی ظرفیت برد کلی استان تهران براساس شاخص ­های تعیین شده  34.0235 بدست آمده است. در مطالعات آتی در صورت تکمیل داده ­ها و اطلاعات مربوط به سایر استان­ ها با اجرای روش مورد استفاده در این مطالعه برای سایر استان­ ها، امکان مقایسه­ بین مقادیر ظرفیت برد، در سطح ملی مهیا می­ گردد، که نتایج آن می­تواند به بهبود روند برنامه ­ریزی بر مبنای مقایسه­ بین استان­ ها، کمک شایانی نماید.

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